Thursday, March 29, 2012

Timeline of Geographic History

Timeline of Geographic History

This is a compilation of key dates in the history of geography and the world. Thought this was pretty cool and very useful, so I added to my blog. You can click on the link above and view the original source for this data. Its nice to have all the major dates in one place and highlight them off as we cover them throughout our school years. We are currently in Rome. My daughter loves this idea and some of the topics we never would have touched on at all, but she actually wanted to go over them out of pure curiosity! Homeschooling is great!

2300 BCEThe first city map was created in stone for Lagash, Mesopotamia
450Herodotus compiled a map of the known world
334Alexander the Great began conquring the Middle East and India
240Eratosthenes calculated the circumference of the earth
45Julian calendar established
20 CEStrabo published his 17 volume Geography
77Pliny the Elder wrote his encyclopedia of geography
79Mount Vesuvius erupted and Pompeii was destroyed
150Ptolmey published his Geography and included a map of the world with places labeled with a coordinate grid system
271The magnetic compass was in use in China
326Helena, Constantine's mother, traveled to the Holy Land to identify places sacred to Christianity
476The Fall of Rome
632Muhammed died and Muslim expansion began
982Eric the Red reached Baffin Island in North America
995Leif Ericson established a colony in Newfoundland
1095The first Crusade began
1154Edrisi's book of world geography was published
1170The letter from Prester John, asking for help against infidels, "arrived" at the Pope
1271Marco Polo headed for China
1325Tenochtitlan founded by Aztecs
1347Bubonic Plague, "Black Death," in Europe, 30 million die
1377ibn-Khaldun completed his history of the world
1405-1433China ruled the seas through the seven voyages of Cheng Ho's Treasure Fleet
1410A translation of Ptolmey's Geography was published in Europe
1418Prince Henry the Navigator established the Sagres research institute
1455Gutenberg invents the printing press
1492Columbus reached the West Indies
1494Treaty of Tordesillas established Spanish and Portuguese control over new discoveries
1500Cabral discovered Brazil
1505Portugal established trading posts in East Africa
1517Martin Luther begins Protestant Reformation
1519Magellan began his circumnavigation of the earth
1543Copernicus published his On the Revolution of Heavenly Spheres
1569Mercator created his map
1582Gregorian calendar established
1602The Dutch East India company was founded
1620Pilgrims landed in New England
1675The Royal Observatory was established at Greenwich, England
1714The British government offered a 20,000 pound reward to the person who could accurately determine longitude at sea
1761John Harrison's chronometer was perfected, allowing determination of longitude at sea
1768-1779James Cook explored the earth
1769Alexander von Humboldt was born
1776British colonies in America declare independence
1779Carl Ritter was born
1788Hutton's theory of uniformitarianism was introduced ("no vestige of a beginning, no prospect of an end")
1789French Revolution
1798Thomas Malthus' first essay on population
1803Thomas Jefferson completed the Louisiana Purchase
1804-1806Lewis and Clark explored the western United States
1817The first volume of Ritter's Die Erkunde was published
1821Simon Bolivar gains independence for Venezuela, sparking widespread independence in South America
1825Erie Canal complete
1830The Royal Geographical Society was formed in London

Lyell published his Principles of Geology
1831Charles Darwin began his travels
1840The Geological Survey of Canada was established
1845The first volume of von Humboldt's Kosmos was published
1848Gold was discovered in Calfornia
1850The first use of the camera for mapping takes place in France

William Morris Davis was born
1851The American Geographical Society was formed
1855Maury's The Physical Geography of the Sea was published
1859von Humboldt and Ritter died
1864George Perkins Marsh's Man and Nature was published
1867The USGS was established
1869Japan opened to western influence and trade

Transcontinental railroad established in United States

The Suez Canal opened
1874The first Department of Geography was established in Germany (the Prussian government established a Chair of Geography in every Prussian university)
1884-1885Berlin Conference divides Africa among European colonial powers
1888The National Geographic Society was formed
1895The first Times Atlas of the World was published
1903University of Chicago established first American Department of Geography
1904The Association of American Geographers was established

Mackinder proposed his Heartland Theory
1909Peary reached the North Pole
1911Amundsen reached the South Pole
1912Wegner proposed his theory of continental drift
1913Greenwich is accepted as 0° longitude
1914-1918World War I
1914The Panama Canal opened
1922The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was established
1923-1957Carl O. Sauer taught at the University of California, Berkeley
1931Commonwealth of Nations founded
1933Walter Christaller introduces Central Place Theory
1934William Morris Davis died
1939-1945World War II
1945The United Nations was founded
1946First Levittown
1949Peoples Republic of China formed
1953Hillary and Norgay reached the top of Mount Everest
1957-1958The International Geophysical Year
1961Antarctic Treaty established
1969Humans land on the moon
1970The first Earth Day
1979China established One-Child rule
1984Hole in Ozone Layer was first observed
1989Berlin Wall tumbled down
1990Reunification of Germany
1991The end of the USSR and Yugoslavia

Persian Gulf War
1992The end of the Cold War
1994Channel Tunnel (Chunnel) opened, linking Great Britain to Europe
1997Geography at site established (formerly called Geography at The Mining Company)

Hong Kong returned to China
1999Euro established as currency in 11 European countries

Macau returned to China
2000U.S. President Clinton orders GPS Selective Availability turned off, instantly making GPS more accurate
2001New millenium began

Southern Ocean established by the International Hydrographic Organization
2002East Timor gains independence
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